- There are two usual cases – white substance only on the oil cap, or on both the oil cap and dipstick.
- This white substance, known as “Oil emulsion“, is a mixture of oil and water, whipped together like cream. I’ll refer to it as “emulsion” in this article.
- If you find emulsion just on the oil cap, it’s most likely condensate formed from the temperature difference under the valve cover and outside. You can safely use your vehicle.
- If you discover emulsion on both the oil cap and the dipstick, avoid starting the engine. This could indicate a serious issue with the head gasket, head or block, or the oil cooler.
Case 1: Emulsion on the Oil Cap Only
It might sound strange, but frequently not driving your car enough can lead to finding emulsion under your oil cap. Let me unpack this a bit.
Imagine leaving your car parked for a long time, say overnight or longer. During this period, your engine, with its cooler metal surfaces, becomes a perfect stage for condensation.
This happens because the metal inside your engine is cooler than the surrounding air, attracting moisture, which turns into water droplets.
Now, here’s where driving frequency comes into play. When you drive your car regularly, the engine heats up, effectively evaporating any moisture before it has a chance to mix with the oil.
This moisture usually exists as a thin film on metal surfaces, not enough to cause concern. However, if you don’t drive often, this moisture doesn’t get the chance to evaporate and starts mixing with the oil, creating that creamy emulsion you see.
Additionally, the oil lubrication system tends to create an oily fog that rises within the engine, which can mix with the water mist sitting on the surfaces.
But, when you use your engine regularly, the amount of this mist is too little to cause any real problems with your oil.
So, while you might still see emulsion on the oil cap and inside the valve cover, it’s usually not a sign of major trouble unless the engine remains unused for extended periods.
So remember, that white, creamy substance under your oil cap after your car has been sitting idle could be just a bit of science in action.
However, it’s always good to keep an eye on it to ensure it’s not indicating a more serious issue.
Replacing Your Oil Cap or Its Seal May Help
Another potential culprit for finding emulsion under your oil cap could be as straightforward as an ill-fitting oil cap.
Yes, it can be that simple! If the oil cap isn’t sealing properly, moisture can sneak into your engine and start mingling with the oil, leading to that creamy emulsion you’re seeing.
In my decade as a car technician, I’ve found that in most cases, the solution is to replace the oil cap. It’s rare to find the gasket sold separately from the cap itself. Plus, the cost is usually so low that it shouldn’t be a major concern.
When you remove the oil cap, take a close look at the rubber gasket. Check for any signs of wear and tear like cracks or breaks in the gasket that might suggest a compromised seal.
If you notice any visible issues, it’s best to replace the entire cap. Chances are, once you do that, you won’t see that emulsion reappear.
Case 2: Emulsion on the Engine’s Dipstick
Finding emulsion on your engine’s dipstick is a situation that demands immediate attention. You must avoid starting your engine at all costs!
There’s a possibility that the essential engine parts requiring constant lubrication – like the crankshaft, camshaft, pistons, and cylinders – are still intact and haven’t suffered damage due to lack of lubrication.
Remember, as oil turns into emulsion, it loses its lubrication properties. The less time your engine has run with the emulsion instead of proper oil, the higher the chances that its internal components are still functional.
However, at this point, be prepared for potentially significant repairs. In the following sections, I’ll delve into what might have happened and the steps you should take next.
The Most Common Culprit – A Blown Head Gasket
One of the most frequent issues, particularly in older or high-mileage vehicles, is a blown head gasket. Often, this stems from issues with the engine’s cooling system. I can’t stress enough the importance of regularly changing all the fluids in your engine, including the coolant.
So, what leads to a blown head gasket? It’s typically the result of excessive heat within the engine.
Under normal conditions, your engine operates at high temperatures, but if it goes beyond the usual, it can lead to overheating. This overheating causes the cylinder head and engine block to expand more than they should, ultimately resulting in a head gasket failure.
Detonation inside the engine can also be a culprit, as it damages the gasket’s protective layers, allowing pressure from the cylinder to escape.
Now, let’s delve into how exactly a blown head gasket can lead to water mixing with oil.
There are several signs that can point to a head gasket failure, and one of these is our situation of the mixing of coolant and engine oil.
When the head gasket fails between an oil gallery and a water passage, it allows these two fluids to intermingle, creating an emulsion. Not only does this contaminate your oil, but it also compromises the efficiency of your cooling system.
So, What to Do?
In cases of a blown head gasket, a replacement is necessary. As mentioned before, avoid starting your engine. Instead, have your car towed to a mechanic or your garage if you’re planning to do the job yourself.
To replace a blown head gasket, either you or your mechanic will need to follow these steps (note that the process may vary slightly depending on the engine):
- Remove the Engine Head: Carefully take off the engine head to access the damaged gasket.
- Clean the Head: Wash it thoroughly to remove all traces of the emulsion.
- Pressure Test for Cracks: This is crucial to check for any cracks in the head. We’ll discuss this more in the next section.
- Valve Maintenance: Ideally, replace the valve stem seals and lap the valves to improve engine compression.
- Resurface the Cylinder Head: Ensure a smooth, flat surface for the new gasket.
- Clean the Engine Block: Use this opportunity to clean as much emulsion as possible from the engine block and other parts.
- Install New Head Gasket and Head: Mount the new head gasket and reattach the head. Remember to replace the head bolts.
- Drain and Replace Fluids: After reassembly, drain all the emulsion from the oil pan. Replace the oil filter and drain all coolant from the engine and radiator.
- Flush Systems: You’ll need to flush both the oil and cooling systems multiple times until all traces of the emulsion are gone.
Remember, when dealing with a head gasket replacement due to water mixing with the oil, it’s somewhat of a gamble.
Since starting the engine is not advised, and even if you could, it’s challenging to assess the extent of damage to the engine’s internal components. Therefore, it’s wise to weigh the overall market value of your vehicle against the cost of repairs.
Often, especially with less expensive vehicles, the cost of repair can outweigh the value, making it more practical to either buy another car or opt for an engine swap.
Additionally, keep in mind that there’s always a risk that, despite all repairs, the engine might still be damaged. Consulting with an experienced mechanic can be invaluable in helping you make this decision.
Identifying Cracks in the Engine Head or Block
To find out whether your engine’s head or block has cracks that are causing coolant to mix with oil, you’ll need to follow the same initial steps as outlined for a blown head gasket.
The crucial part here is the pressure test of the cylinder head. This test will reveal any cracks.
There are two key things to look for:
- Head Gasket Condition: If the head gasket appears undamaged and the pressure test shows that the head can hold pressure, the issue might lie in the engine block.
- Location of the Crack: Determining where the crack is located is crucial. If it’s in the head, you might get away with just replacing the head. However, if the engine block is cracked, you’re likely looking at a more costly solution, such as swapping the entire engine.
Regarding the specifics of where a crack can occur and its implications:
- Cracks on the Outside: If the crack is on the exterior part of the block, perhaps due to freezing that broke the water jacket, it might cause coolant to leak externally.
- Cracks Between Oil Galley and Water Jacket: Here, you might find oil in the coolant, since oil operates at a higher pressure than coolant (oil at 30–80 psi vs. coolant at 10–15 psi).
- Near the Cylinder: A crack near the cylinder could lead to coolant mixing into the oil, or it might cause compression issues, leading to antifreeze being expelled through the radiator’s blowby hose.
These scenarios are similar to what you might encounter with a blown head gasket or a cracked head, each requiring a unique approach to repair.
Following the discussion about potential cracks in the engine head or block, it’s important to note from my experience that diagnosing a cracked block can sometimes be quite challenging.
Regardless, whether it’s the block or the head that’s cracked, the cost of repair often exceeds the price of a used engine, though this can vary depending on the vehicle.
If you suspect even the slightest possibility of having these issues, it’s crucial to consult with an experienced mechanic. A skilled professional with the right experience can accurately diagnose the problem and offer the most effective solution.
Trust me, their expertise can be the difference between a correct diagnosis and a costly misstep.
Understanding the Compromised Oil Cooler
Another potential cause for our problem could be a compromised oil cooler. Here’s a bit of general information:
The Role of the Oil Cooler: In some engines, the oil cooler serves as a vital heat exchanger, allowing both coolant and oil to flow through separate channels. It plays a crucial role in maintaining the engine’s temperature balance.
How Failures Occur: Problems arise when there’s an internal failure within the oil cooler. Such an issue can lead to coolant and oil mixing, which is a serious concern for engine health.
From my own experience, mechanical damage to the oil cooler can sometimes be accidental. I recall a time working on a Peugeot 307 with a 1.6 HDi diesel engine. While removing the gearbox, I unintentionally bent the metal cover of the DPF, which was located very close to the oil cooler.
Over time, due to engine vibrations, this bent metal cover wore a hole through the thin aluminum of the oil cooler. Fortunately, in my case, it resulted in a coolant leak outside of the engine, but it’s a stark reminder to handle these components with care.
Other common causes include faulty oil cooler gaskets, though this can vary depending on the engine and its configuration.
Additionally, using improper antifreeze or using just water instead of proper product can damage the delicate internal passages of the oil cooler, leading to a mix-up of oil and water.
This is why it’s so important to use the correct fluids in your engine to avoid such costly mishaps.
Coolant in Oil vs. Oil in Coolant
To fully cover our main topic, it’s also worth mentioning that oil in coolant and coolant in oil are not quite the same thing. Both situations are problematic, but they manifest in different ways and lead to different types of damage.
When Oil Finds Its Way into Coolant
- This scenario leads to the formation of sludge within the engine’s cooling system. Think of it as clogging up the works.
- The sludge can impede the flow of coolant, which means your engine might overheat faster than you can say “trouble.”
- Overheating isn’t the only issue, though. It can also lead to the deterioration of critical gaskets and seals – not something you want to ignore.
The Flip Side – Coolant in Your Oil
- Here, the real problem is the loss of oil viscosity. Remember, viscosity is what gives your oil the ‘thickness’ it needs to lubricate engine parts effectively.
- This thinning of the oil can wreak havoc on parts of the engine like the valve train, lifters, and bearings. And let me tell you, fixing these parts is neither cheap nor easy. It requires both time and money, and quite a bit of both.
So, whether it’s oil in the coolant or coolant in the oil, neither is a situation to take lightly. Each has its own set of challenges and repair needs. It’s crucial to diagnose and address these issues promptly to avoid more significant engine damage.
We’ve explored a range of scenarios where water might find its way into your engine oil, each with its own set of challenges and solutions.
From the relatively benign condensation under the oil cap to more serious issues like a blown head gasket, cracks in the engine block or head, or a compromised oil cooler, it’s clear that water in engine oil is a symptom that demands attention.
As a car technician, I’ve seen firsthand the variety of ways these problems can manifest and the damage they can cause if left unchecked. The key takeaway here is vigilance and prompt action.
Whether it’s a simple fix like replacing an oil cap seal or more involved repairs, addressing these issues early can save you time, money, and the headache of more serious engine damage down the line.
I hope this guide has been informative and helpful. But remember, while I’ve shared my knowledge and experiences here, there’s always more to learn and discuss.
So, if you have any questions, stories, or insights of your own about water in engine oil, feel free to share them in the comments below. Your input could be invaluable to someone facing a similar issue.
Let’s keep our engines running smoothly and our minds open to the wealth of knowledge and experiences we all bring to the table 🙂